Richard Kirwan’s Philosophical Society (1780-1787)

share this

In December 1780 in the Chapter Coffee House near St Paul's Cathedral, several men led by the Irish chemist Richard Kirwan decided to meet fortnightly to discuss ‘Natural Philosophy, in its most extensive signification’.

The membership of the group grew steadily, and meetings took place in a variety of locations including the Baptist’s Head Coffee House. William Nicholson joined in 1783 and was elected joint secretary with William Babington in 1784.

Museum of histroy of science oxford

Nicholson’s copy of the minutes of the society, until 1787 when it folded, are in Oxford’s Museum of the History of Science and it was wonderful to be able to inspect them recently.

Compared to other philosophical societies of that time, especially the Lunar Society which had been meeting in the Midlands since 1765, this group seems little known – partly because it never had any name.

In 1785 it was agreed that the group would have no formal name when Kirwan ‘affirmed that the society not being desirous of that kind of distinction which arises from name or title were so far from giving any sanction or authority to the names used by their secretaries that the original determination in this respect was that the society should not have a name.

Fortunately the minutes do include a most interesting list of the members

Mr Benjamin Vaughan, Minster Court, Mincing lane

Mr Kirwan, Newman Street

Mr Magellan, Nevills Court

Mr Nairn, Cornhill

Dr Crawford, Lambs Conduit Street

Dr John Hunter, Leicester Square

Dr Wells, Salisbury Court

Mr Blackall, Thavies Inn, Holborn

Dr Keir, Adelphi

Mr Whitchurch, Bolt Court Fleet Street

Dr Wilkinson, Crutched Friars 22

Dr Cleghorn, Haymarket 11

Dr Quin

Mr Alex Aubert, Austin Friars

Mr W. Jones, Inner Temple

Mr Hoesfield

Mr Miller, Sackfield Street 17

Honorary members included:

Mr Bright, Bristol

Mr Keir, Birmingham

Mr Watt

Mr Priestley

Dr Price, Newington Green

Dr Bolton, Birmingham


    Further information

    The entire set of minutes, as well as descriptions of all the members of the society, are set out in Discussing Chemistry and Steam: The Minutes of a Coffee House Philosophical Society 1780-1787, by Trevor H. Levere and Gerard L'E Turner.

    Available from Oxford University Press

    21stC readers of Nicholson's Journal 9,693

    Subscribe to RSS



    The biography of William Nicholson 1753–1815

    Exploring the life and publications
    of William Nicholson 1753-1815